This suggests that social connectedness may help us deal with the impact of specific traumatic events, such as a global pandemic or a terrorist attack (Butler et al., 2009), rather than simply being related to levels of distress in general. Lower levels of social identity was a moderate predictor of hazardous drinking (p < 0.05). Higher psychological distress scores refers to higher levels of distress, depression/and or anxiety;3. This scale has 20 items with responses rated on a four-point scale ranging from “I have never felt this way” to “I have felt this way often.” Factors influencing the high levels of alcohol consumption include: the beginning of new peer networks; access to affordable alcohol on campus; stress related to studies; and the high number of events on campus where alcohol is available [7] . The scale comprised of 20 items using a 6-point Likert-type scale in which response format is from 1=strongly disagree to 6=strongly agree. Previously validated and reliable scales were included in the questionnaire. Statistical significance and proportions were compared for categorical variables using Chi-Square analyses. Background . For analysis responses were collapsed into three categories (None, 1 - 10hours and 11 - 20+). We The 10 item AUDIT, which provides a measure of alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and alcohol related problems (Scores: 0 - 40) [39] was used to measure level of drinking. The majority of respondents in this study reported to consume alcohol at some level in the past twelve months (87%) which is consistent with previous university-based research which shows a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among young people [4] [49] [50] . Females were more likely to participate in the online questionnaire, however this is consistent with previous university studies [4] . Lower social identity score refers to a higher level of social identity. The need to belong and form social bonds is a significant motivator of behavior [22] . Higher scores reflect a higher level of social connectedness[47] . Given the benefits of social connectedness, further research is needed to determine how to enhance this as a protective factor as opposed to encouraging hazardous drinking. Poorer social connectedness may be a more powerful risk factor underlying deficits revealed in prior studies. The questionnaire also included questions from two scales used in Psychology. UCLA Loneliness Scale Given Facebook’s scale (over 2 billion active users globally and 236 mil… Another Australian university study found 46.6% of 18 - 24 years old consumed alcohol at hazardous levels using the same binary analysis of low risk and hazardous AUDIT scores as this study [49] . Student recruitment for the online and intercept surveys was undertaken during a six week period from mid-July 2014. There are a number of limitations to consider when interpreting the results of this study. Folk, Debra Mashek, June Tangney, Jeffrey Stuewig, Kelly E. Moore, Connectedness to the criminal community and the community at large predicts 1‐year post‐release outcomes among felony offenders, European Journal of Social Psychology, 10.1002/ejsp.2155, 46, 3, (341-355), (2015). Within the sample, participation in university and community sports and clubs was low, which may limit the generalizability of the results. Once seen as a “rite of passage”, the prevalence at which alcohol is being consumed among university students has now become an international public health issue [6] . When all factors were considered: gender, living arrangements, being a domestic student, hours spent at work, participation in university and community sport, higher levels of psychological distress, higher levels of social connectedness, and lower levels of social identity were significant predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption. 8 for social connectedness; 8 for social assurance Scale 6 point Likert scale Data collection format Self report Scoring key The items are added up for a total score – a higher score indicates more connectedness to others. International students (88.2%) (p < 0.001) were more likely to participate in low risk drinking behavior. This study was based at the Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health. A better understanding of the association between connectedness, social identity, mental health and alcohol consumption will inform the development of appropriate interventions for young university students. Social connectedness: The Social Connectedness Scale , an 8-item measure scored on a 6-point Likert scale, indexed social connectedness. Research assistants from the Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health were recruited, completed a standardized one hour training session delivered by the project staff and subsequently administered the survey. When all factors were considered (Table 3) gender (p < 0.001), students’ living arrangements (p < 0.001), international student status (p < 0.001), hours spent at work (p < 0.001), participation in community sport (p < 0.001), the psychological distress (p < 0.001), and social connectedness (p = 0.001) were significant predictors of hazardous drinking, while participation in university sport (p < 0.05) was a moderately significant predictor of hazardous drinking. The majority of the student sample (n = 1905; 87%), reported to have consumed alcohol in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. Similar to other studies of this population AUDIT was computed to a binary variable to represent low risk (<8) and hazardous levels of alcohol consumption (≥8) [4] [42] [43] [44] [45] . Items were reverse-scored. The authors acknowledge participants of this study who gave their time to complete the survey, the Curtin Office for Strategy and Planning and health promotion students for help in administering the survey. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. There was significant difference between students who participated in university sport (p < 0.001); and community sport (p < 0.001) and level of drinking. The scale consisting of eight items is used to determine the subjective perception of how Social connectedness is defined by frequency of contact with others, personal relationships, and engagement in the community. Multiple regression analyses were used to describe predictors of social connectedness. However while there is limited evidence on the specific association between connectedness to club and alcohol consumption studies have found associations between excessive alcohol consumption and sports involvement in Australia [29] [30] , New Zealand [31] , the US [32] and Europe [33] which may suggest connectedness to some groups may not be protective for excessive alcohol consumption. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. Students who spent more hours in paid employment were 1.2 times more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels. Nine independent raters assessed appropriateness of items, with two items deleted resulting in 74 items. %PDF-1.5 %���� The onset of mental health issues is typically seen around the age at which young adults are completing higher education [17] . Responses included “several times a week”, “once or twice a week”, “about once or twice a week” and “never”. Australian domestic students were approximately 5.8 times more likely to report hazardous drinking than international students. Adolescent connectedness to community, volunteer and religious groups was found to be protective of harmful alcohol consumption while those who were connected to sports clubs were more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels [4] . Males (42.5%) were more likely to participate in hazardous drinking compared to females (35.2%). Significant at p < 0.001*; significant at p < 0.05**. The social connectedness scale includes eight items consist-ing of a six level rating system (1 = agree to 6 = disagree); measuring connected-ness (4 items), companionship (3 items) and affiliation (1 item). Further investigation is needed to fully understand the relationship between involvement in groups and clubs and alcohol consumption. In comparison, a 2009 study of 17 - 24 years old students (n = 7237) at the same university, found 34% of student respondents consumed alcohol at hazardous levels. The impact social connectedness has on alcohol consumption and the mental health of university students will be analyzed. Students were asked how many hours they spent in paid work, attending university classes and doing personal study each week. There was a similar representation of younger (18 - 20 years; 49.9%) and older students (21 - 24 years; 50.1%). Students were ineligible to complete the intercept survey if they had responded to the email request. Whilst hazardous alcohol consumption is known to have negative impacts on mental health and academic performance [17] [19] university students have reported positive aspects to drinking including camaraderie with other students [20] . 1 Social Connectedness Scale – Revised Directions: Following are a number of statements that reflect various ways in which we view ourselves. Social connectedness was measured by Urdu version of SCS-R (Fatima, 2014). Social Connectedness Scale. Only 22.2% of students who reported attending no classes reported hazardous drinking levels however non-attenders comprised only 7.6% (n = 144) of the sample. The majority of respondents were female (62.1% n = 1504), followed by male, 37.5% (n = 908) and other gender (queer n = 4; androgynous n = 1; intersex n = 1, transgender female to male = 1; transgender male to female = 2). Item Development Using the same operational definition for social connectedness previ-ously established by Lee and Robbins (1995), we generated a total of 44 items that reflected the positive and negative aspects of connectedness. There was a significant difference in place of residence and alcohol consumption, with students living in a share flat/house and student housing more likely to be hazardous drinkers (43.3%; 48.9% respectively). A scale called the Personal Acquaintance Measurehas been developed to help a person measure their connectedness with another individual. The initial email coincided with the release of semester one results. As well as consuming alcohol at high levels, university students commonly present with mental health problems such as stress, anxiety and depression [4] [15] [16] . Students who participated in university sport once a month or more were more likely to report hazardous drinking (47.5%) compared to students who did not participate (35.9%). Previous research has identified social isolation as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems (e.g., Berkman, 1995; Cacioppo & Hawkley, 2003; Cacioppo, Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Thisted, 2006; House, 2001). Coefficient alpha = .95. The Social Connectedness Scale (SCS) which was developed by Lee and Robbins and adapted into Turkish by Duru is a one-dimensional instrument comprising eight negative items (e.g., “I catch myself losing all sense of connectedness with society”, “Even among my friends, there is no sense of brother/sisterhood”). The newly developed multidimensional scale to measure social connectedness (Self in a Social Context—Social Connectedness Scale; SSC–SC) comprised a provisional item pool of 76 items in family, peer, school and community domains. Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. The scale was developed based on the theory of self-psychology and measures feelings of belongingness. The UCLA Loneliness Scale-Revised (Russell et al., 1980, Russell et al., 1978) is a widely used measure assessing subjective feelings of loneliness, low connectedness, and social isolation. The majority of respondents lived with parent/s or guardian/s (n = 1418; 60.3%), followed by sharing a flat or residence (n = 590; 25.1%); living with a partner and/or children (n = 128; 5.4%), or living in student housing (n = 114; 4.9%). Table 2. Generalizability of the results of this study precludes the assumption of any causal effects from Grade 8 upwards and most! Protection against hazardous alcohol consumption to be hazardous drinkers respectively on a 6-point scale! Thirty eight percent of the sample, participation in university students [ 18 ] considered identifying as international! Connectedness, social connectedness appears to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol consumption was to! 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